Central nervous system stimulants:
  • Cocaine
  • Amphetamines
  • Caffeine (including soft drinks and "energy" drinks)

 Other drugs that interfere with the control of ventilation:
  • Analeptics (e.g. doxapram)
  • Salicylate intoxication (This is complex: also causes metabolic acidosis!)
  • Theophylline/Aminophylline

Respiratory disease involving hypoxaemia
  • Anything with VQ mismatch, such as asthma, pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis etc
  • High altitude
  • Severe anaemia

Head injury, or stroke may impair the control of breathing.
A tumour may have a similar effect, depending on its location.

Meningitis, fever

Pregnancy (progesterone)

Anxiety/Anxiety-hyperventilation syndrome

Other acute psychological factors such as fear and panic.

Don’t forget: excessive mechanical ventilation!

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